The prisoners had later infiltrated a camp for internally displaced persons in the capital.
Working with the Haitian National Police, more than 350 military and police staff serving with the UN stabilisation mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) raided the Jean-Marie Vincent camp for IDPs near the notorious Cité Soleil neighbourhood of Port-au-Prince.
The operation was the largest security action conducted by MINUSTAH since the 12 January quake, which killed an estimated 300,000 people and destroyed or substantially damaged the homes of millions of others. Many prison inmates also escaped from jail in the aftermath of the disaster.
In a statement, MINUSTAH said the raid was conducted following an upsurge in violence inside the IDP camp that was linked to the prison escapees.
Following the quake the UN Security Council authorised the mission to have an additional 15,000 UN Police (UNPOL) and 2,000 military personnel.